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Historically, in North America, one of the most economically destructive pests in cotton production has been the [[boll weevil]]. Due to the US Department of Agriculture's highly successful Boll Weevil Eradication Program (BWEP), this pest has been eliminated from cotton in most of the United States. This program, along with the introduction of genetically engineered cotton containing a gene that codes for a plant-produced protein that is toxic to a number of pests such as tobacco budworm, cotton bollworm and pink bollworm, has allowed a reduction in the use of synthetic insecticides.
 
[[Акс:Cotton harvestBaumwoll-Erntemaschine.jpgjpeg|thumb|300px|Offloading freshly harvested cotton into a module builder in Texas. Previously built modules may be seen in the background.]]
 
Most cotton in the United States, Europe and Australia is harvested mechanically, either by a [[cotton picker]], a machine that removes the cotton from the boll without damaging the cotton plant, or by a [[cotton stripper]] which strips the entire boll off the plant. Cotton strippers are generally used in regions where it is too windy to grow picker varieties of cotton and generally used after application of a [[defoliant]] or natural defoliation occurring after a freeze. Cotton is a perennial crop in the tropics and without defoliation or freezing, the plant will continue to grow.