Роҳнамо:АФБ барои ҳиндӣ ва урду

The charts below show the way in which the Алифбои Фонетикии Байналхалқӣ (АФБ) represents ҳиндӣ and урду pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Hindustani phonology for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Hindi-Urdu. See Devanagari and Urdu alphabet for help converting Hindi and Urdu spelling to pronunciation.

Consonants
IPA Hindi Urdu Approximate English equivalent
k

ک sky

کھ ache (khh sound)
ɡ

گ again
ɡʱ

گھ aghast
ŋ

ن bank (mostly Hindi; Urdu uses [n] (ن)).

چ catch
tʃʰ

چھ choose

ج jazz
dʒʱ

جھ hedgehog (strong jhh sound)
ɲ

ن roughly like canyon (mostly Hindi; Urdu uses [n] (ن)).
ʈ

[1]

ٹ artist
ʈʰ

[1]

ٹھ Thai, tarp
(deeper thh sound)
ɖ

[1]

ڈ odd, depot
ɖʱ

[1]

ڈھ adhere
ɳ

ن bunny (mostly Hindi; Urdu uses [n] (ن)).

[1]

ت، ط kite
t̪ʰ[1] تھ thump (dental thh sound)

[1]

د the
d̪ʱ[1] دھ within (as a dhh sound, tongue touches palate, strong air exhalation)
n

ن not
p

پ pencil

پھ pith (phh sound)
b

ب butter

بھ abhor
m

م much
j

ی yak
r

ر rapture (r may be trilled)
l

ل leaf
ʋ

[2]

و varies between w and v
ʃ

ش shoe (light s with h sound)
ʂ

ش/س assure
(strong s; no h sound) (mostly Hindi; Urdu uses either [ʃ] (ش) or [s] (س)).
s

ث، س، ص sue
h

ح head
q

क़ ق quail (k in the throat, tongue not touching palate) (mostly Urdu; sometimes substituted for [k] (क) in Hindi)
x

ख़ خ Bach (kh in the throat, tongue not touching palate) (mostly Urdu; sometimes substituted for [kʰ] (ख) in Hindi)
ɣ

ग़ غ similar to a French r (mostly Urdu; sometimes substituted for [ɡ] (ग) in Hindi).
z

ज़ ذ، ز، ض، ظ zen, zero
ʒ

श़ ژ pleasure, seizure
ɽ

ड़ ڑ gourd
ɽʱ ढ़ ڑھ as [ɽ] plus h; somewhat as the US: warhead or Greek rho
f

फ़ ف phantom, food (f sound)
Vowels
IPA Hindi Urdu Approximate English equivalent
ə

[3]

अ, प اَ، بَ strut, but

आ, पा آ, بَا far, heart
ɪ

[4]

इ, पि اِ، بِ dill, still

[4]

ई, पी اِی، بِی feed
ʊ

[4]

उ, पु اُ، بُ book, took

[4]

ऊ, पू اُو، بُو moon
ऋ, पृ ری، پر Syllabic ‹r›: repaired

ए, पे اے، بے Yale
ɛː

ऐ, पै اَے، بَے rain,, feign

ओ, पो او، بو roar
ɔː

औ, पौ اَو، بَو know, hoe
 ̃ ـں nasal vowel faun
([ãː, õː], etc.)
ŋ

, ɲ

, ɳ

, n

, m

,  ̃

ـں jungle
ɦ

ه ahead
Suprasegmentals
IPA
ˈ

stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
ː

doubled consonant

ЭзоҳВироиш

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 To an English-speaker's ear, [ʈ ʈʰ t̪ t̪ʰ] all sound like /t/, and [ɖ ɖʱ d̪ d̪ʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Hindi-Urdu-speaker's ear, each is a very different sound. [t̪ d̪] are like the Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth. [t̪ʰ d̪ʱ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English [θ ð ] (the th and dh sounds). Hindi-Urdu [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth mid-palate. [ʈʰ ɖʱ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English t d, and [ʈ] is how they hear the English t after an s (as in st).
  2. Шаблон:IPAblink, Шаблон:IPAblink and intermediate [ʋ ] are allophonic in Hindi-Urdu. Some words, such as vrat ('व्रत', 'ورت', religious fast), are pronounced with [v]; others, such as pakwan ('पकवान', 'پكوان', cooked food), are pronounced with [w].
  3. /ɛ/ occurs as a conditioned allophone of /ə/ near an /h/ surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa undergoes syncopation, and the resultant is just an /ɛ/ preceding an /h/.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralised to [i , u ] at the end of a word.